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A Clinician's Dictionary Guide to Fungi
Topic Started: Aug 24 2007, 05:33 PM (1,889 Views)
AloeGal
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A Clinician’s Dictionary Guide to Fungi A-Z
Eli Lily Co. 1981

Here in my Clinician's Guide to Bacteria and Fungi it says this:

"Preface

The taxonomy of bacteria is a dynamic area in which new information continues to be acquired at a rapid rate. The extent of the new information is reflected in the fact that the third edition of this manual appeard so soon after the second and that it incorporated many changes in classifications, nomenclature, and clinical data. In the fourth edition, we have taken advantage of the manual's adaptable dictionary form to update information on both bacteria and fungi.

The taxonomy of fungi had progressed rapidly with the development of new tools for study, such as the electron microscope, and with the refinement of biochemical studies and serologic tests. New species are being discovered and isolated with increased frequency.

Fungi prefer the debilitated host - the individual with impaired immunity or chronic disease or the patient undergoing antibiotic therapy. Soil saprophytes are the most common fungal pathogens. Their spores are airborne and often land on injured tissue, which provides a good environment for growth. In addition, the inhalation or ingestion of fungi may result in allergic or toxic reactions.

An extensive list of pathogenic fungi could be tabulated; it might, in fact, include every fungus on earth. Only the more aggressive opportunists (which account for the majority of infections) and the more common saprophytes are discussed herein. This section also includes a cross-reference for fungal disease and their etiologic fungi.

It is our hope that this dictionary can serve as a practical guide for the interpretation and treatment of clinical problems caused by fungi."
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Bear in mind that some of these organisms have been changed either in name or classification over the years. But what they do has not changed. Fungi were created to decompose organic matter. We HOPE they do so after death, but sometimes they don't wait. Note how many they THINK are only "contaminants" or only affect those already sick. Most of us ARE sick due to contaminated foods, heavy metals and environmental issues. - HB
***********************************************
A -
Absidia (A. corymbifera, A. ramosa)
Genus of fungi known to cause phycomycosis (mucormycoses). See Phycomycetes.

Actinomycetes
A class of organisms formerly considered to be fungi but now classified as bacteria. Includes the genera Actinomyces, Naocardia, Streptomyces, and Dermatophilus.

Ajellomyces Dermatitidis - See Blastomyces dermatitidis.

Allescheria Boydii - see Petriellidium boydii.

Amanita
Certain species of this fungi (A. phalloides, A virosa, A. muscaria, A. patherina, A. verna) cause severe and often fatal mushroom poisoning (mycetismus choleriformis, mycetismus nervosus) after ingestion.

Aphanoascus Fulvescens
A keratolytic fungus that is usually saprophytic and isolated from soil. Has produced one reported case (as of 1981) of human ringworm (tinea corporis).

Arthroderma
Genus of fungi representing perfect states* of the genus Trichophyton. A benhamiae is the perfect state of T. mentagrophytes.
* “Perfect State” refers to the sexual phase in the life cycle of a fungus in which spores are formed.

Ascomycetes
Class of fungi that includes the genera Allescheria and Leptosphaeria.

Aspergillus !!!!!!!!
Genus of approximately 300 fungal species characterized by elongated conidiophores enlarging into heads covered by sterigmata that contain long chains of spores. The fungi are ubiquitous. The spores are airborne. Common laboratory contaminants. Some species produce disease in plants, insects, birds, and domestic animals. Infection is opportunistic and is aquired through inhalation. Infection with an Aspergillus (aspergillosis) may involve the lungs and produce fungus balls (aspergillomas) or allergic aspergillosis (including asthma, bronchopulmonary reactions, and farmer’s lung). Aspergillus may also cause rhinitis, skin lesions, sinusitis, external otitis (otomycosis) conjunctivitis, myocarditis, genital lesions, onychomycosis, orbital and eye infections (including mycotic keratitis), infections of the nose, vagina, uterus, heart valves, bones, brain, meninges, mediastinum, and pleural cavity, and endocarditis. Disseminated aspergillosis is generally associated with an underlying disease (persons with compromised host defenses) or heavy exposure to spores and is usually fatal. A. fumigatus is the most common etiologic agent of human aspergillosis.

Other species that produce infection in man include the following:

A. amsteloidami has caused mycetomas.

A. candidus has been isolated from lung infections and optic nerve granulomas and had caused disseminated disease.

A. carneus has been found in lung infections.

A. clavatus causes allergic aspergillosis and lung infections.

A. fisherii has caused onychomycosis, naso-orbital aspergillosis, allergic aspergillosis, lung infection, pulmonary fungus balls, and disseminated infection. A toxin (aflatoxin) is elaborated, and it produces tumors (hepatomas).

A. glaucus group (includes A. amsteloidami) has caused onychomycosis, cerebral abscess, lung infection, and disseminated disease.

A. nidulans may cause onychomycosis, allergic aspergillosis, and lung infection and has been implicated in one case of osteomyelitis of a rib in association with aspergillus pneumonia.

A. niger has been isolated from lung infections.

A. niveus has been isolated from lung infections.

A. oryzae has caused sinus and orbital infections, cerebral granuloma, and meningitis.

A. parasiticus produces aflatoxin that induces tumors (hepatomas).

A. restrictus has produced disseminated aspergillosis.

A sulphureus has been isolated from lung infections.

A. sydowi has been found in lung tissue and pulmonary secretions and has caused invasive aspergillosis.

A. terreus has caused allergic aspergillosis, cutaneous infections, sinus and orbital infections, lung infections, and cerebral aspergillosis and has produced pulmonary fungus balls.

A. versicolor has been isolated from lung infections.

Aureobasidium Pullulans
A fungus that has reportedly been isolated from a single case of skin infection characterized by black verrucous plaques.


B-
Basidiobolus Haptosporus
Fungus known to cause subcutaneous phycomycosis (mucormycosis). See Phycomycetes. Normal habitat is soil. Occurs in Africa and Southeast Asia.

Beauveria Bassiana
Common soil fungus. Has caused one reported human lung infection with cavities and pulmonary fungus balls. [fungus balls?? or "tumors"]

Blastomyces Dermatitidis (Ajellomyces dermatitidis - perfect form)
Dimorphic fungus that appears as large, single-budding, thick-walled structures in tissues. Causes blastomycosis, or Gilchrist’s disease, a chronic infection aquired by inhalation of spores and characterized by suppurative and granulomastous lesions that are disseminated throughout the body but most commonly involve the skin (cutaneous blastomycosis), lungs (pulmonary blastomycosis), and bones. Has also caused endocarditis. Has been isolated from soil only rarely. May infect the dog but no known transmission from this animal to man or from man to man. Found primarily in North America.

Boletus (B. satanas, B. miniato-olivacius)
Fungus that produces a usually mild mushroom poisoning (mycetismus) manifested by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms.

C-
Candida
Genus of yeastlike fungi capable of causing candidiasis, which may be manifested as an acute, chronic, or disseminated mycosis. May be part of the normal body flora.

C. albicans is a small, oval, budding, thin-walled, yeastlike cell that may or may not be accompanied by pseudohyphae [false roots] or mycelial [fungal body] elements. Present worldwide. May be part of the normal flora of the throat, skin, vagina, and feces or may invade any tissue or organ and produce disease. This species is the most common cause of the contagious disease candidiasis (candidosis, moniliasis, thrush). Often there are predisposing conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, malignancy [cancer], chronic debilitating diseases, pregnancy (vaginitis), and usage of antibiotics, steroids, or cytotoxic drugs. May produce thrush in adults or in newborns of mothers having vaginal candidiasis. Also causes vulvovaginitis [exterior of vaginitis], balanitis [male reproductive], skin and nail infections, tinea pedis [ringworm], pulmonary or bronchial infection, pulmonary fungus balls [tumors?], enteritis [swelling of the intestine] with diarrhea, esophagitis, endocarditis (most commonly in drug addicts, following cardiac surgery, or after bacterial endocarditis [lining of the heart]), meningitis [infection of the coating of the brain or spinal cord], brain abscesses [holes], arthritis, corneal [eye] disease, mycotic keratitis [swelling of the cornea - eye], pyelonephritis [swelling of the kidney and pelvic region], cystitis [swelling of the bladder], septicemia [toxic blood], and abscesses in many organs in cases of disseminated candidiasis

C. guilliermondii is found on normal skin and has been isolated from cases of endocarditis in drug addicts, from persons with preexisting vulvular disease undergoing antibiotic therapy, and from patients who have undergone heart surgery. Has also caused meningitis.

C. krusei has caused diarrhea in infants and, occasionally, systemic disease. Has been isolated from skin, animal feces, beer, and milk products.

C. lusitaniae is an opportunist that has been cultured from blood and tissue samples from immunosupressed patients.

C. parapsilosis has produced disease of the nails (onychopathy) and caused endocarditis in drug addicts, in persons with preexisting vulvular disease undergoing antibiotic therapy, and in patients who have undergone heart surgery. Has also caused corneal infections. Has been isolated from normal skin and feces.

C. pseudotropicalis has been a common isolate from nail infections and lung diseases. Also found in cheese and dairy products.

C. stellatoidea has caused endocarditis and vaginitis.

C. tropicalis has caused meningitis and septicemia. Isolated from feces, shrimp, and kefir.

C. viswanathii has caused meningitis and has been recovered from sputum.

Cephalosporium
A genus of fungi usually considered to be nonpathogenic contaminants. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency [aren't we all immunocompromised?] those on immunosuppressive drugs, steroids, or antibiotics, and those with debilitating disease. Has been cultured from many cases of mycetoma, mycotic keratitis, and onychomycosis. Natural habitat is soil, in which it is abundant. Has caused rare or single cases of meningitis and midline granuloma.

C. falciforme is one of several fungi capable of causing maduromycosis (mycetoma, Madura foot), a chronic infection most commonly affecting the feet and characterized by nodules, abscesses, draining sinuses, and marked edema. Found in the United Sates, Puerto Rico, and Brazil. Natural habitat is soil and plant surfaces.

Cercospora Apii
A fungus that has been reported in one case of extensive cutaneous and subcutaneous infection in an Indonesian child.

Chaetoconidium
A common soil saprophyte that has been reported as a cause of cutaneous and subcutaneous infection in a sixteen-year-old boy on immunosuppressive therapy.

Chrysosporium
A keratinophilic fungus that has been isolated from human skin, where it is of questionable clinical significance. Two species (or subtypes) are recognized: C. parvum
(Emmonsia parva) and C. crescens or C. parvum var. crescens (Emmonsia cescens). The fungi cause adiaspriomycosis (haplomycosis, adiasporosis), a lung infection due to inhalation of spores. Elicit little host reaction but may induce granuloma formation when large umbers are present. Varieties of the fungus have a worldwide distribution and cause lung disease in several animals, including rats, mice, squirrels, and rabbits.

Cladosporium (Hormodendrum)
A fungus genus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosup-pressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease. Some species have been reported as the cause of endocarditis.

C. bantianum (Torula bantiana, C. trichoides) is a dematiaceous fungus with a predilection for the brain, where it produces abscesses in cases of chromoblastomycosis. Has also caused lung lesions and cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcers.

C. carrionii is one of the fungal species that causes chromoblastomycosis. Has been found in Australia, South Africa, and Venezuela.

C. cladosporoides is a fungus species commonly present on plants, in decaying organic substances, and in the air. Has been reported to grow as a pulmonary fungus ball, probably in a preexisting lung cavity, in a debilitated host.

C. werneckii is a pleomorphic fungus that causes the superficial skin infection tinea nigra. Most often located on the palms and characterized by asymptomatic brown or black macules. Occurs along costal regions of the southeastern United States and in Central America, South America, and South Africa. Natural habitat is in soil, sewage, humus, and decaying vegetation. Man-to-man transmission has been reported as has autoinoculation.

Coccidioides Immitis
Nonbudding fungus characterized in tissues by large spherules filled with endospores. Produces highly infective arthrospores. Causative fungus of coccidioidomycosis (San Joaquin Valley fever, valley fever, coccidioidal granuloma, desert rheumatism, Posada-Wernicke disease), which is highly endemic in California in the San Joaquin Valley and endemic to the dry regions of the southwest United States, Central America, and South America. Usual habitat is soil. Human infections aquired through inhalation or by skin contact with infected soil. No evidence of man-to-man or animal-to-man contagion. May cause primary lung disease (pneumonia, pleurisy, pleural effusions); skin disease such as granulomas, erythema nodosum, and erythema multiforme; conjunctivitis; acute arthritis; generalized infection involving bones, skin, and subcutaneous tissues; meningitis; endocarditis; draining sinuses; and abscesses. Progressive forms may be fatal.

Contaminant
A fungus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic organism extraneous to the actual clinical condition. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease.

Cortinarius Orellanus (Dermocybe orellanus)
A poisonous mushroom which, after ingestion, causes the orellana syndrome, consisting of high fever and renal failure due to acute renal necrosis.

Corynebacterium Tenuis (Nocardia tenuis, Actinomyces tenuis)
Causative agent of trichomycosis axillaris (lepothrix), an infection of axillary and pubic hairs characterized by yellow, red, or black nodules on the hair shafts.

Cryptococcus Neoformans (Torula histolytica, T. neoformans, C. meningitis)
A fungus that appears in tissues as a thick-walled, single-budding sphere with a large capsule. Causes cryptococcosis (torulosis, European blastomycosis, Busse-Buschke disease). Has been isolated from fruit juices, milk, pigeon and chicken droppings, and soil. Found worldwide. Causes mastitis in cattle and infections in other animals, including dog, cats, horses, guinea pigs, and foxes. Infection is not normally transmitted from animal to man or from man to man. May be introduced into the skin and cause local lesions or may be inhaled and produce pulmonary infection. There is a marked predilection for the brain and meninges. May also cause granulomatous bone lesion, endocarditis, and lesions in various viscera. Infections may be subclinical. Many cases of cryptococcosis occur in compromised hosts.

Cryptococcus Species Other than Neoformans
Fungi usually considered to be contaminants and nonpathogenic. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease.

Cryptostroma Corticale
Causative fungus of maple bark stripper’s disease, a granulomatous lung disease due to the inhalation of this fungus.


Ctenomyces
a genus of keratinophilic fungus that has been isolated from human skin. Of questionable clinical significance.

Cunninghamella
Genus of fungi in the order Mucorales. The species C. bertholletiae and C. elegans have caused a few cases of pulmonary infection in immunosuppressed patients.

Curvularia
A saprophytic fungus that can be a secondary invader of a damaged cornea and cause mycotic keratitis. Regarded as opportunistic, especially after steroid or antibiotic therapy. C. geniculata has been isolated from a case of endocarditis with mycotic infarcts and abscesses following surgical heart-valve replacement.

D-
Dematiaceous Fungi
Several species of pigmented fungi found throughout the world as saprophytes in the soil and on wood and wood products. Produce decay in fruits and vegetables. In man, cause subcutaneous abscesses or, occasionally, mild lung infections that may spread to the brain through the bloodstream. Include Phialophora gougerotii, P. spinifera, P. richardsiae, and Cladosporium bantianum.

Dermatophilus Congolensis
An Actinomycetes that causes a skin disease (Dermatophilus) in animals and humans. In sheep, the infection is referred to as lumpy wool, or mycotic, dermatitis.

Dermatophytes [remember the commercials?]
Fungi that invade and infect superficial skin. Thirty-seven species are recognized and include Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton species, Microsporum species, and Candida albicans. Many species are present in soil and not known to cause animal or human disease. [as far as they “know.”]

Dimorphic Fungi
Fungi that grow as yeast forms in body tissues and as hyphal or mycelial forms in the environment at temperatures below normal body heat. [thyroid issues???]

Diplosporium
A fungus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease. [most everyone on the planet!]

Drechslera Hawaiiensis
A widely distributed soil fungus that has been cultured from one case of fatal meningoencephalitis in a patient with lymphoma.

E-
Emmonsia - see Chrysosporium

Entoloma Lividum
Fungus that produces a usually mild mushroom poisoning (mycetismus) manifested by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms.

Entomophthora Coronata (Conidiobolus coronatus)
Etiologic agent of rhinoentomophthoromycosis, an infection of nasal mucosal with prominent swelling and polypoid formation. Rarely, extends to paranasal sinuses, the pharynx, subcutaneous tissues, and facial muscles. Most frequently occurs in Africa. The organism has been isolated from moist decaying leaves and soil and is found throughout the world in warm climates. Also causes infection in horses.

Epidermophyton Floccosum
A dermatophyte fungus that may infect skin and nails and cause tinea pedis, a superficial skin infection of the feet, and tinea cruris, a superficial skin infection of the groin. Found worldwide.

Eumycetes
The “true” fungi. Divided into three classes: Phycomycetes (water molds), Ascomycetes (sac fungi), and Basidiomycetes (mushrooms).


F-
Fonsecaea Compactum (Phialophora compactum)
One of the fungal species that causes chromoblastomycosis. Has been isolated from infections in Puerto Rico and Tennessee.

Fonsecaea Pedrosoi (Phlialophora pedrosoi)
The most common fungal species that causes chromoblastomycosis.

Fungi Imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)
A class of fungi in which sexual reproduction is unknown. Includes the genera Madurella, Cephalosporium, Phialophora, Pyrenochaeta, Monosporium, Curvularia, and Neotestudina.

Fusarium (F. solani, F. oxysporum, F. nivale)
A genus of saprophytic fungi usually considered to be nonpathogenic contaminants. Can be secondary invaders of a damaged cornea and cause mycotic keratitis. Regarded as opportunistic, especially after steroid or antibiotic therapy or in debilitated persons or those with an immune deficiency. A few cases of colonization on burned skin and one of the osteomyelitis following trauma have been reported. Natural habitat is soil. Common plant pathogens.

Fusidium Terricola
A fungal species that has been reported to cause mycotic keratitis.

G-
Galerina Species (G. autumnal is, G. marginata, G. veneta)
An extremely toxic mushroom which, following ingestion, produces symptoms similar to those from mushrooms of the Amanita genus.

Geotrichum Candidum
A yeastlike fungus that appears in tissues as rectangular or oblong cells or, occasionally, as thick-walled spherical cells that may be confused with Blastomyces dermatitidis. Ubiquitous and often found in soil, plants, and dairy products. It may be part of the normal flora of the skin, sputum, and feces or may cause Geotrichosis. This mycosis often occurs as an opportunistic infection in debilitated individuals. May be manifested as oral lesions similar in appearance to thrush; may also be characterized by colitis, bronchitis, or pulmonary infection simulating tuberculosis or, rarely, by cutaneous [deep skin tissues] lesions. A disseminated form has been described with involvement of the colon, lungs, heart, spleen, urine, and blood.

Gibberella Fujikuroi
A fungal species that has been reported to cause mycotic keratitis.

Glenospora Graphii
A fungal species that has been reported to cause mycotic keratitis.

Glenosporella Loboi (Glenosporopsis Masonic, Loboa loboi, Paracoccidioides loboi)
Causative fungus of lobo mycosis (lobo’s disease, keloidal blastomycosis), a chronic granulomatous skin infection that results in formation of keloid-like lesions. Produces no systemic lesions. Found in Africa near the equator. Has never been cultured from the lesions. Usual habitat is probably soil. Recently classified as a strain of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

Gliocladium
A fungus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant.May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease.

Gymnoascus
A keratinophilic fungus that has been isolated from human skin. Of questionable clinical significance.

H-
Hansenula
An opportunistic yeast that has been isolated from persons with terminal debilitating disease. May be part of the normal flora of the throat and gastrointestinal tract.

Helminthosporium
A fungus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. Natural habitat is soil. Frequently cultured from the skin and sputum. Inhalation of spores may induce attacks of bronchial asthma in some individuals. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease, such as chronic lung infection.

Helvella Esculata (Gyromitra esculata)
A fungus that causes Helvella (Gyromitra) mushroom poisoning, characterized by hemolytic, hemoglobinuria, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The death rate is less than 4 percent in Europe, and deaths are rare in America. Poisoning may occur after ingestion of undercooked mushrooms or from inhalation of fumes during cooking.

Hemispora
A fungus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease.

Histoplasma Capsulatum **************!!!!*****
Dimorphic fungus that appears in tissues as small intracellular (rarely extra cellular) yeast forms. In cultures, forms large tuberculate macroconidia. Causative agent of histoplasmosis (Darling’s disease). Infection is usually asymptomatic and develops after inhalation of spores, with subsequent disease most often involving the lungs. It may appear as a primary, acute pulmonic [lung] disease or, less commonly, as a chronic pulmonary [lung] disease or a progressive, disseminated [spreading] infection manifested by generalized lymphadenopathy [any disease, disorder, or enlargement of the lymph nodes.], splenomegaly [enlargement of the spleen], and hepatomegaly [enlargement of the liver.]. Meningitis [inflammation of the meninges - membrane of the spinal chord and brain] may occur but is unusual. Focal [main] lesions may be found anywhere in the body, and endocarditis [inflammation of the membrane lining the heart] has been reported. The infection may also appear as a localized skin or mucous-membrane lesion after accidental local inoculation. Such inoculation may be the etiology of choroiditis [eye] or uveitis [uvea - middle layer of 3 of the eyeball]. May infect animals, including dogs, cats, mice, rats, raccoons, skunks, sheep, swine, foxes, and opossums. Endemic in regions of the Appalachian Mountains, the Ohio Valley, the Central Mississippi Valley, Mexico, and Panama. Also is present in South America, Europe, South Africa, Australia, and the Philippines. Usual habitat is soil and decaying excreta of chickens, pigeons, and bats. Infection may become epidemic. No animal-to-man contagion. (Perfect stage: Emmonsiella capsulata.)

Histoplasma Capsulatum var. Duboisii (H. duboisii)
A dimorphic fungus that appears in tissues as a thick-walled, budding yeast resembling Blastomyces dermatitidis. The mycelial form is similar to Histoplasma capsulatum with large macroconidia. Causative agent of African histoplasmosis, a disease confined to Africa. Any body tissue may be involved in the disseminated from (abscesses, granulomas), but most common are local skin lesions or a small bone lesion. Skin lesions may be associated with regional or generalized lymphadenopathy. No man-to-man transmission.

Hormodendrum - See Cladosporium.

Hyphomyces Destruens
Fungus that has been isolated from cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions of phycomycosis (mucormycosis).

I -
Inocybe
Species of fungus (I. infelix, I. fastigiated) cause severe and often fatal mushroom poisoning (mycetismus choleriformis, mycetismus nervosus) after ingestion.

L-
Lactarius Torminosus
Fungus that produces a usually mild mushroom poisoning (mycetismus) manifested by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms.

Lasiodiplodia Theobromae
A tropical fungus recently reported as a cause of cutaneous ulcers in Miami, FL.

Lepiota Morgani
Fungus that produces a usually mild mushroom poisoning (mycetismus) manifested by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms.

Leptosphaeria Senegalensis
One of several fungi capable of causing maduromycosis (mycetoma, Madura foot), a chronic infection most commonly affecting the feet and characterized by nodules, abscesses, draining sinuses, and marked edema [swelling]. Has been found in Africa. Natural habitat is soil and plant surfaces.

Loboa Loboi - see Glenosporella.

M-
Macrophoma
Genus of fungi that have been reported to cause mycotic keratitis. [inflammation of the cornea - eye.]

Madurella
One of several fungi capable of causing maduromycosis (mycetoma, Madura foot), a chronic infection most commonly affecting the feet and characterized by nodules, abscesses, draining sinuses, and marked edema [swelling]. Natural habitat is soil and plant surfaces. M. grisea is usually found in South America and occasionally in the United States and Africa. M. mycetomi is most often found in Europe and Africa.

Malassezia Furfur- see Pityrosporum orbicular.

Malbranchea
A genus of keratinophilic fungi that has been isolated from human skin. Of questionable clinical significance.

Micromonospora Faeni (Micropolyspora faeni)
A thermophilic Actinomycetes that causes farmer’s lung and has been reported as the etiologic agent in a case of hypersensitivity alveolitis. [having to do with lung air sacks.]

Microsporum
A genus of dermatopyhtic fungi that may infect hair or skin and cause tinea [ringworm] corporis, tinea barbae, tinea capitis, and tinea favosa. Found worldwide. (Perfect state: Genus Nannizzia.)

M. audouinii causes epidemic ringworm of the scalp in children of North America, Europe, and Africa. Transmission is from man to man.

M. canis causes sporadic ringworm of the scalp in children and may be transmitted from animals (cats and dogs) to man. Occurs in the United States, South America, Europe, Africa, Australia, and the Caribbean area.

M. cookei has been isolated from many animals without lesions and from soil in many areas of the world.

M. ferruginous causes tinea capitis in Europe, Africa, and the Far East.

M. gypseum causes sporadic cases of ringworm (tinea capitis, tinea favosa, and tinea corporis) in children and adults. Some cases of tinea corporis have progressed to form deep granulomas. This organism and its infections occur most frequently in South America and uncommonly in the United States.

M. nanum has been isolated from humans, hogs, and soil in many areas of the world. Has caused a few cases of ringworm.

M. persicolor (Trichophyton persicolor) is an infrequent human pathogen. Often pathogenic for small wild rodents in England.

M. vanbreuseghemii has been isolated from two humans, a dog, and a squirrel.

Monilia Sitophila
A fungus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease.

Mortierella
Fungus known to cause phycomycosis (mucormycosis) - see Phycomycetes.

Mucor
A fungus in the class Phycomycetes usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease. Some species have caused phycomycosis (mucormycosis), rhinophycomycosis, external ear infections, endocarditis, and pulmonary fungus balls [tumors]. Species recorded as causing disease include M. circinelloides, M. javanicus, M. racemosus, M. spinosus, M. ramosissimus (one case of prolonged, chronic, destructive facial lesion), and M. pusillus (has been reported as the cause of mycotic pulmonary valve vegetation with lung embolization and disseminated infection). See also Phycomycetes.

Mucoraceae
A family of ubiquitous fungi in the class Phycomycetes. Includes the genera Rizopus, Absidia, and Mucor. Characterized by broad, nonseptate hyphae.

Mycelia Sterilia
A group of fungi usually considered to be nonpathogenic contaminants. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease.

N-
Nannizzia
Genus of fungi representing perfect states of the genus Microsporum.

N. cajetani is the perfect state of M. cookei.
N. grubia is the perfect state of M. vanbreuseghemii.
N. gypsea is one of the perfect states of M.gypseum.
N. incurvata is one of the perfect states of M. gypseum.
N. obtuse is the perfect state of M. nanum.

Neruospora Sitophila
A fungus reported as a cause of mycotic keratitis. [inflammation of the cornea]

Nigrospora
A fungus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease.

Nocardia - See Bacteria section

O-
Omphalalotus Olearius (Clitocybe illudens, “jack-o’-lantern”)
Fungus that produces a usually mild mushroom poisoning (mycetismus) manifested by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms.

Oospora
A fungus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease.

P-
Paecilomyces
A genus of fungi usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease. Has been isolated from the blood, thrombus [blood clot], and embolus [another type of blood clot - mass] of a patient after heart-valve-replacement surgery.

Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis (Coccidioides brasiliensis, Blastomyces brasiliensis, Aleurisma brasiliensis)
Causes Paracoccidioides granuloma (Lutz-Splendore-Almeida disease, or paracoccidioidesmycosis), a chronic granulomatous disease primarily affecting the lungs, skin, mucous membranes, and lymph nodes. In the disseminated form, the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and spleen are most commonly involved. Found almost exclusively in South America. Derives its name from a resemblance to Coccidioides immitis. Yeast phase in tissues appears as thick-walled, multiple-budding structures. Those with single buds are indistinguishable from Blastomyces dermatitidis. Thought to be aquired from exogenous sources via inhalation, ingestion, or microtraumatism [small injuries] to skin and mucous membranes. Rarely recovered from soil, (two reports). No known man-to-man transmission. One strain causes lobomycosis in Africa.

Penicillium
A genus of over 300 species of a fungus usually [usually?] considered to be saprophytic and nonpathogenic. Ubiquitous. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease. Has been a secondary invader of damaged corneas with resultant mycotic keratitis (p. citrinum, P. spinulosum). Has been uncommonly associated with infections of the external ear, respiratory tract (farmer’s lung), and urinary tract. Frequently isolated from the sputum, bronchial secretions, and body surfaces of health individuals. Inhalation of spores may induce attacks of bronchial asthma in some individuals. Forms toxins that have caused gastrointestinal disturbances. P. puberulum is known to produce hepatomas-inducing [liver tumors] aflatoxin. Only two cases of systemic disease have been reported, both in debilitating individuals receiving steroid and antimicrobial therapy.

Petriellidium Boydii (Allescheia boydii)
One of several fungus capable of causing maduromycosis (mycetoma), a chronic infection most commonly affecting the feet (Madura foot) and characterized by nodules of granulomas, abscesses, and, eventually, many draining sinuses and edema [swelling]. Rarely, may invade the blood and cause lesions throughout the body (viscera, bones with eventual marked deformities, brain, meninges, lungs, sinuses, and prostate). Has also formed fungus balls [tumors] in the lung and has caused a few cases of mycotic keratitis. Occurs most frequently in the United States, Europe, and South America. Natural habitat is soil and plant surfaces. P. boydii is the perfect state of Scedisporium apiospermum (Monosporium apiospermum).

Phialophora
Genus of fungi imperfecti that contains many species. Commonly present in soil, decaying wood, and water and on fruits and vegetables.

P. dermatitidis (Hormodendrum dermatitidis, Forsecaea dermatitidis) is one of the fungal species that cause chromoblastomycosis. Has been isolated from the brain and oral mucosa.
P. gougerotii (Cladosporium gougerotti) is a fungal species that may cause subcutaneous abscesses (chromoblastomycosis or phaeosporotrichosis). See Dermatiaceous Fungi.
P. jeanselmei is one of several fungi capable of causing maduromycosis (mycetoma, Madura foot), a chronic infection most commonly affecting the feet and characterized by nodules, abscesses, draining sinuses, and marked edema; has also been found in cases of chromblastomycosis. Has been isolated in the United States and Europe. Natural habitat is soil and plant surfaces.
P. mutabilis has caused one case of endocarditic from vegetations n a prosthetic mitral valve.
P. parasitica is a soil fungus isolated from a subcutaneous infection in a patient receiving immunosuppressive therapy.
P. rapens has caused a glaucomatous scalp lesion in one debilitated patient being treated with steroids.
P. richardsiae is a fungal species that may cause subcutaneous abscesses (chromoblastomycosis or phaeosporotrichosis). See Dermatiaceous Fungi.
P. spinifera is a fungal species that may cause subcutaneous abscesses. See Dermatiaceous Fungi.
P. varrucosa (Fonsecaea pedrosoi var. phialophorica, Cadophora americana) is one of the fungal species that causes chromoblastomycosis. Also has pronounced mycotic keratitis.

Phoma
A genus of fungi usually considered to be nonpathogenic contaminants. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease. P. hibernica has reportedly caused glaucomatous lesions in previously damaged skin.

Phycomycetes !!!!!!!!!
Group of fungi characterized by broad, nameplate, uneven, coenocytic hyphae in tissues. Worldwide distribution. Normal habitat is soil. May be present in manure and on the surfaces of fruits. Commonly known as bread molds. Cause phycomycosis (murcormycosis), which is found most often in debilitated persons, such as those with malignancy or diabetes mellitus or those on steroid or prolonged antibiotic therapy. Infection may occur by inhalation with subsequent necrosis and inflammation is characteristic. Phycomycosis may occur as subcutaneous [below the skin] infections, pulmonary [lung] infection, bronchitis, or intestinal infarction [dead tissue] or may be disseminated [spread all over].

Pichia Membranaefaciens
A fungus that has been recovered as part of the normal flora of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract.

Piedraia Hortai
The causative agent of black piedra, a fungal disease that affects the hair shafts of the scalp, beard, and mustache and is characterized by the presence of dark-brown or black gritty nodules on the shafts. Endemic in tropical areas of South America, the Far East, and the Pacific Islands and in Java and Cochin China.

Pityrosporum Orbicular (P. furfur, Malassezia furfur)
Causative agent of pityriasis (tinea - ringworm) versicolor, a chronic superficial fungal infection characterized by light-brown macules located primarily on the trunk. Most common in malnourished or chronically ill individuals. Worldwide distribution.

Pleospora
A fungus genus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease.

Prototheca
Genus of ubiquitous organisms considered by some to be achloric algae. Have been isolated from the skin, feces, and sputum of healthy individuals. Have caused skin infections and, on rare occasions, disseminated disease (of the eye, myocardium, kidney, etc.). Occasionally opportunistic.
P. ciferii has been isolated from the gastrointestinal tract.
P. filamenta was found in a case of athlete’s foot but was not considered to be causative.
P. portoricensis has been isolated from feces.
P. segbwema has produced verrucoid skin lesions and infection in associated lymph nodes that drain the lesions.
P. wickerhamii has caused skin lesions in a diabetic patient with carcinoma (cancer) and a wound infection in a diabetic and has been recovered from the sputum of a patient with tuberculosis.
P. zopfii has caused cutaneous lesions.

Psilocybe Species
Ingestion of these fungi may be followed by mycetismus cerebralis, a syndrome characterized by disorders of the nervous system, including anxiety and visual changes.

Pullularia Pullulans (Dermatium pullulans)
A fungus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease.

Pyrenochaeta Romeroi
A fungus that has been isolated in Venezuela from one case of maduromycosis (mycetoma, Madura foot), a chronic infection most commonly affecting the feet and characterized by nodules, abscesses, draining sinuses, and marked edema [swelling]. Natural habitat is soil and plant surfaces.

R-
Rhinosporidium Seeberi
A fungus which has not yet been successfully cultured. Appears in tissues as large sporangia in polypoid masses. Causes rhinosporidiosis, an infection occurring as polyps on mucus membranes of the nose, conjunctiva (surrounding eye), ears, larynx, and eyes an, less commonly, on the skin, vagina, vulva, anus, and penis. Rare cases of disseminated disease due to hematogenous spread have been reported from India, where the disease is endemic. Also found sporadically in the United States, Central America, South America, Europe, Egypt, and the Far East. Believed to be transmitted by dust or water. No man-to-man transmission.

Rhizopus
A genus of fungi usually considered to be nonpathogenic contaminants. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease. Some species (R. arrhizus, R. oryzae, R. nigricans, R. cohnii, R. microsporus, R. equinus) have been causative agents of phycomycosis (mucormycosis) and rhinophycomycosis. Two cases of Rhizopus pneumonia have been reported in presumably healthy individuals. Several nosocomial (caught at a hospital) cutaneous infections have been traced to contaminated elasticized adhesive dressings.

Rhodophyllus Sinuatus
Fungus that produces a usually mild mushroom poisoning (mycetismus) manifested by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms.

Rhodotorula (R. mucilaginous, R. rubra)
Opportunistic yeasts that have been isolated from patients with terminal debilitating disease. Have caused lesions of the lungs, kidneys, and central nervous system and fungemia secondary to contamination of intravenous solutions, catheters, and heart-lung and dialysis machines. Have caused fatal endocarditic. Common airborne contaminants.

Russula Emetica
Fungus that produces a usually mild mushroom poisoning (mycetismus) manifested by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms.

S-
Saccharomyces !!!!!!!
A simple, primitive, unicellular fungus. S. carsbergensis, S. cerevisiae, and S, fragilis have been isolated as part of the normal flora of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. S. cerevisiae has caused pulmonary disease, most often reported in European brewers. S. carlsbergensis and S. pastorianus have been associated with gastric infections.

Scedosporium Apiospermum - See Petriellidium boydii.

Schizophyllum Commune
A Basidomycete that is commonly isolated in nature but only rarely causes disease. Was the etiologic agent in one well-documented case of meningitis, has been recovered from the sputum of an individual with chronic lung disease, and has caused one of oral ulcerations and perforated palate.

Scopulariopsis
A fungus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease. An occasional cause of external ear infections and onychomycosis. One case of ulcerating granuloma has been reported. Natural habitat is soil. Widely distributed.

Sporotrichum Schenckii (Sporothrix schenckii)
A fungus that appears as budding cigar-shaped, round, or oval cells in tissues. Causes sporotrichosis, a mycosis characterized by cutaneous, subcutaneous, and lymph-node nodules which break down to form ulcers. Dissemination of the infection is rarely observed. Occasionally, the mucus membranes of the nose, mouth, or pharynx may be primarily involved, with enlarged regional lymph nodes. Other rare areas of primary infection include the conjuntivas, bones, joints (in which it may elicit a glaucomatous synovitis), muscles tendon sheaths, kidneys, testes, epididymis, breasts, and lungs. Human infection usually is acquired through skin injury and contact with infected materials or animals, such as dogs, cats, horses, rats, and mice. It may result from contaminated dressings and, in the primary pulmonary form, presumably from inhalation of mycelia elements. Many cases have followed skin injury by thorns of the barberry bush. There is no known direct man-to-man transmission. Worldwide distribution. Usual habitat is soil and plants.

Syncephalastrum
A fungus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitation disease.

T-
Thermoactinomyces
Genus of organisms widespread in nature, several strains and species of which have been isolated from sputum. Associated with farmer’s lung disease and hypersensitivity pneumonia.

Thorulopsis Galabrata
Causative agent of torulopsosis, an opportunistic infection that occurs most commonly in patients with diabetes, with terminal malignancies, or on prolonged therapy and only rarely in persons with no underlying disease. Widely distributed in nature and part of the normal flora of the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital area. Also isolated from animals. Causes mastitis in cows. Has been associated with human urinary tract infections, meningitis, endocarditic, pulmonary infections, fungemia, and systemic infections.

Trichoderma
A fungus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease.

Tricholoma Pardinum
Fungus that produces a usually mild mushroom poisoning (mycetismus) manifested by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms.

Trichophyton
A genus of detmatophytic fungi that may cause infections of the hair, skin, and nails, including the tineas [ringworm] - cruris, barbae, unguium, corporis, capitis, imbricata, and favosa. Has also produced pulmonary fungus balls [tumors]. Found worldwide. (The perfect state is the genus Arthroderma.)

T. ajelloi is distributed worldwide in soil. Has rarely been isolated from cases of human tinea corporis.
T. concentricum causes tinea imbricata in tropical regions. Very similar to T. schoenleini.
T. equinum produces endothrix infections in the horse. Man may acquire infection from the horse.
T. megninii had caused skin lesions of the hand, foot, and beard areas. Occurs primarily in Europe.
T. mentagrophytes causes ectothrix [hair] infections, chronic athlete’s foot, and skin lesions.
T. rubrum causes infections very resistant to therapy. Attacks skin, hair (ectothrix), and nails and leads to such conditions as tinea unguium and tinea corporis. May also produce atypical lesions, such as nodular, glaucomatous cutaneous reactions.
T. schoenleini causes endothrix [hair] infections. Common agent of favus in Europe, the Mediterranean region, and the Near East.
T. simii produces ringworm in animals, including dogs and poultry. Frequently isolated from soil. Uncommon in humans.
T. tonsurans causes an endothrix type of hair infection -- black-dot ringworm and epidemic tinea capitis in adults and children. Also may produce tinea corporis, with progression to deep granulomas.
T. verrucosum causes ringworm in cattle and other animals that may spread to man as an ectothrix infection.
T. violaceum is the etiologic agent of tinea capitis in Mediterranean countries, central Europe, and the Far East and of rare cases in the United States. Produces endothrix infections and tinea favosa.

Trichosporon Beigelii (T. cutaneum)
The causative agent of white piedra, a fungal infection of hair shafts of the beard and mustache. Characterized by light-brown, gritty nodules. Occurs sporadically in Europe, Japan, South America, and the United States. May be recovered from the mouth, respiratory tract, and pharynx. Has occasionally caused mycotic keratitis and pulmonary and systemic infections, including brain abscess.

Trichothecium
A fungus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease.

U-
Ustilago Zeae
A fungus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease. Has caused mycotic keratitis.

V-
Verticillium
A fungus usually considered to be a nonpathogenic contaminant. May be etiologically significant in patients with an immune deficiency, those on immunosuppressive drugs, and those with debilitating disease.

Volutella Cinerescens
Fungus that has been reported to cause mycotic keratitis.


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FINALLY!! It took me a long time to get this all typed!!! Enjoy! :)
Blessings,
AloeGal :)
You never know why you're alive until you know what you would die for....I would die for You. ~ Mercy Me
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AloeGal
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"Fungi prefer the debilitated host - the individual with impaired immunity or chronic disease or the patient undergoing antibiotic therapy. Soil saprophytes are the most common fungal pathogens. Their spores are airborne and often land on injured tissue, which provides a good environment for growth. In addition, the inhalation or ingestion of fungi may result in allergic or toxic reactions."
FYI - this book was published in 1982. Imagine what has changed since then! I'm going to try to get a new copy and update.
Blessings,
AloeGal :)
You never know why you're alive until you know what you would die for....I would die for You. ~ Mercy Me
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ML
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wow an A to Z synopsis of fungi
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